With all due respect to Jack Trout and Al Ries, IMHO, the essence of marketing sits in only TWO cardinal principles, viz. domination and remembrance.
By domination, I mean that you should focus on one and only ONE category. Pick your specialized niche and be the leader in that.
Say, if that category is a pie in your prospects’ minds, you would need to grab the biggest piece of that pie. Domination is inside your target’s mind.
By remembrance, I mean that your target audience should recall you first the moment they think of a service provider in YOUR chosen category.
For example, if you are a sport sneakers vendor, it might be that your last advertising campaign ran in December 2015.
And in this long hiatus, some other market player suddenly started promoting their shoes as the “best sports sneakers in the world”.
Guess what? Your potential customers, when in need of a sports sneaker, will go to your competitor. Simple. They remember THAT brand the moment they think of a sports sneaker, not you.
Marketing is conquering a category and maintaining your position inside your prospects’ head—day after day, week after week, year after year. This creates a marketing moat so that even if someone else tries to enter the space, he follows you instead, as number two perchance.
That’s how marketing is done.